Gadchiroli is a town and a municipal council in Gadchiroli district in the state of Maharashtra, central India. It is the administrative headquarters of the district.
It is very lush in Monsoon season (July to September) but also prone to flooding.
Gadchiroli District is located on the North-Eastern side of the State of Maharashtra. It is situated between 18.43` to 21.50' North latitude and 79.45' to 80.53' East longitude and this essentially indicates the Gadchiroli District is located in the Deccan Plateau. The adjoining districts to Gadchiroli are Durg, Rajnandgaon of newly created Chhattisgarh State on the east, Chandrapur on the west, Bhandara on the north and Karim Nagar, Adilabad of Andra Pradesh & Jagdalpur(Chhattisgarh State) on the South.
The District Head-quarter is situated at Gadchiroli which is 180 Kms away from Nagpur and 80 Kms away from Chandrapur and 200 Km from Bhandara . The district is surrounded on West, South and East by the Wainganga, Godawari and Indrawati rivers respectively.
Gadchiroli district was created on August 26, 1982 by bifurcating the Chandrapur district, which is part of the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. In ancient times the region was ruled by the Rashtrakutas, the Chalukyas, the Yadavas of Deogiri and later the Gonds of Gadchiroli. In the 13th century Khandkya Ballal Shah founded Chandrapur. He shifted his capital from Sirpur to Chandrapur. Chandrapur subsequently came under Maratha rule. In 1853, Berar, of which Chandrapur (then called Chanda until 1964) was part, was ceded to the British East India Company. In 1854, Chandrapur became an independent district of Berar. In 1905, the British created the tehsil of Gadchiroli within Chandrapur. It was part of the Central Provinces till 1956, when with the reorganisation of the states, Chandrapur was transferred to Bombay state. In 1960, when the new state of Maharashtra was created, Chandrapur became a district of the state. In 1982 Chandrapur was divided, with Gadchiroli becoming an independent district.
Naxalism is highly prevalent in Gadchiroli and subsequently has been highlighted as part of the Red Corridor, used to describe areas in India that are plagued by Naxalites.
PEOPLE AND THEIR CULTURE
The total population of district is 969960 that includes 490809 Males and 479151 Females ( As per Census 2001).Most of the density of population is located in Chamorshi taluka which is 1,34,670 and it's percentage is 17.11 % (Census 1991). ( Total Population of the district as per Census 1991 was 7,87,010 )
Most of the people living in district; are of tribal community. The population of tribals in the district is 3,04,535 & it's percentage is 38.70 % while the population of scheduled caste people is 95,996 & it's percentage is 12 % approx. ( Census 1991). Due to this, district is categorised as Tribal District. The Major community of tribals those reside in the district are Gond, Madia, Pardhan and Kolam. They have their own languages as "Gondi, Madiya".
The tribals in the district have their own culture. They are used to perform worships of their God "Persa Pen" and others. They do dance "Rela" on auspicious occasions and when new crops come. Rela dance is popular dance among the tribals. The other dance is "Dhol" dance. Holi, Dashehara and Deewali are the main festivals of tribals. The tribal community families reside in the dense forest of District.
The other community people have their own Festival such as Ganpati, Dashera, Diwali and Holi. In some part of district, villagers are interested in arranging "Natak, Tamasha" on the occassion of "Shankar-Pat" in the month of January and February and also arranges the culture programmes as "Dandar" on Festival days like Dashehara, Diwali, Holi etc.
The following table shows the area wise languages used to talk by the people in the district. The tribal community people talk in their mother languages which are Gondi, Madia. The other languages in which the peoples speak and known to them are, Marathi, Hindi, Telgu, Bengali, Chattisgadhi.
The languages which are used to talk in the district shows the impact of languages those are talked in adjoining state to the district.
The town Gadchiroli is situated about 180 Kms from Nagpur and 80 Kms away from Chandrapur of Vidarbha region. The district has well connected road links to other adjoining districts as Chandrapur, Bhandara & Nagpur. It takes around two hours journey from Chandrapur and 4 hours journey from Nagpur by State Transport Bus to reach Gadchiroli. Also, private luxury buses are run from Nagpur and Chandrapur for Gadchiroli.
Gadchiroli district receives rainfall from South- Western winds mainly in the months of June, July, August and September. July and August are the months during which the maximum rainfall as well as maximum continuous rainfall occurs.
Gadchiroli District experiences extreme variations in temperature with very hot Summers and very cold Winters and an average relative humidity of 62 percent.
The maximum recorded temperature till date was 46.3 Celsius on 20th May 1992 and minimum temperature of 5 Celsius was on 5th January 1992.
Lok Biradari Prakalp