Parbhani is a city in Parbhani district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. Parbhani, formerly known as “Prabhavatinagar”, is a city in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra. It is the administrative headquarters of Parbhani District.
Parbhani district covers an area of about 6250.58 km2. The district is divided into 9 administrative Sub-units (Tahsils)-Parbhani, Gangakhed, Sonpeth, Pathri, Manwath, Palam, Selu, Jintur, and Purna.
Parbhani is approximately situated at the centre of Maharashtra. The state capital, Mumbai lies to the western maharashtra of Parbhani. The nearest major city is Aurangabad. Parbhani is well connected by road to other major cities also in Maharashtra and even in the neighboring state of Andhra Pradesh. Parbhani is an important Railway junction on the Mumbai-Parbhani-Secunderabad and Parli-Parbhani-Bangalore lines.
Parbhani has one of the four agricultural universities in Maharashtra which is known as Marathwada Agricultural University'(MAU). It was established in the year 1972.The objectives of the University are: education in agriculture and allied sciences, research based on regional needs and facilitate technology transfer etc. It is the only Agricultural University in India where all the Branches of Agricultural Sciences are taught.
Funded and Regulated by the (ICAR) Government of India., MAU is headed by Proff Uday Khodke, Proff Smita Khodke, Proff Naadre, Proff Srinivasan, Proff Ramdas Bhattachary, Proff Shinde, Proff Laad, Proff Solanki, Proff Sawte, Proff Visala Patnam and others.
College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Parbhani is located here which is one of the constituent Veterinary Colleges coming under the authority of Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences University, Nagpur from 2000. Earlier this college was established in 1972 as a part of MAU.
Parbhani has its share in Hindu mythology. The Hindu saint who is considered to be the reincarnation of the Dattatraya in Hindu mythology, Shri Shirdi Saibaba was said to be born in this district at a place called Pathri-about 45 km from Parbhani. A Jain temple at Jintur is 40 km away. A village named Mudgal (Tq. Pathri) the only place in India where Vishnu (Mudgal Narsimha) and Shiva (Mudgaleshwar) are worshiped together. Pokharni, a place situated at around 19 km to the south of Parbhani has a famous Lord Narshima temple. Selu is 45 km away towards aurangabad where a temple of Shri Keshavraj Babasaheb is there, who was Guru of Shri SaiBaba. selu is a important railway station on mumbai-secundrabad rail line.
Notable temples in Parbhani include Motha Maruti (a temple of Lord Hanuman) which is famous in the city, Shree Supari Hanuman Mandir, Jabreshwar (at Wadgalli). Pardeshwar Temple and Beleshwar Mahadev Temple are known for the worship of Lord Mahadev (also known as Bhagwan Shankar). The Naag Temple is also present in Parbhani, near the Temple of Lord Shani. Urus (fun fair) is an important festival where people of all religions come together and celebrate for a week.in parbhani district Pathri tehasil having three important places i.e. Sai Baba of Shirdi temple in Pathri, Datta temple in Gunj(khurd) and Renuka Devi temple at Gondgaon.Parbhani also called, ' Jagat Germany bharatat parbhani' says aumkar deshpande.
Parbhani languished for over 650 years under Muslim rule, under the Sultans, the Mughals and later the Nizam. The town remained a part of the Hyderabad State under the rulership of the Nizam until Operation Polo of the Indian Army in 1948. Thereafter it became a part of the independent Republic of India. Until 1956 the town remained a part of Hyderabad State within India. Under the administrative reforms that year and the breakup of the State of Hyderabad, Parbhani and the adjacent towns were transferred to the multilingual Bombay State. Since 1960 it has been a part of Maharashtra state. Historically name Parbhani is derived from "Prabhavati Nagari" named after goddess "Prabhavati" meaning Goddess with great aura.